Vaccination drives are off to slow starts around the world.

To meet Mr. Johnson’s target, some two million doses need to be given every week.

According to Mr. Johnson, England is outpacing many countries in the European Union, where vaccination campaigns did not kick off until just before Christmas.

Data from 19 of the bloc’s 27 member states, including France, Germany and Italy, show that about 500,000 vaccinations have been carried out so far.

In Germany, where the government was poised to extend lockdown measures through January, nearly 265,000 people received a first shot as the nationwide drive entered its second week, according to health officials. At the moment, Germany and other European Union countries are relying on the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine, which requires another booster shot weeks later to reach full efficacy. England has decided to delay that second shot and other countries are exploring doing the same.

The Italian government said that as of Monday, 151,606 people had been vaccinated. A majority, 134,255, were health care professionals.

The vaccination drives in Germany and Italy are moving much faster than in France, where only about 500 people received the vaccine during the previous week.

And the campaign in the United States, the world’s leader in new infections, is off to a much slower start than promised.

About 4.5 million people in the United States have received a dose of a Covid-19 vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, far short of the goal that federal officials set to give at least 20 million their first shots before the end of December.

The small number of vaccine recipients is particularly striking in New York City, where roughly 110,000 people — in a city of more than eight million — have received the first of two doses necessary to help prevent serious cases of the disease. That is about a quarter of the total number received by the city.

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